Vyanjan Sandhi – hal Sandhi-Sanskrit Vyakarna व्यंजन सन्धि- हल् सन्धि- संस्कृत व्याकरण

Hello Friends. Welcome to Sanskrit Gurukul. In this tutorial, you will learn about Vyanjan Sandhi (व्यंजन सन्धि), types of vyanjan sandhi, and examples of various type of Sandhi with their pronunciation.

Before we start with the topic, first let’s have a refresher about Sandhi.

“Sandhi is a combination of two-letter which leads to change in the newly formed letter” (It can be a replacement of a letter, the addition of a letter, or deletion of a letter). In Sandhi, the last letter of the first word and the first letter of the next/second word is joined depending on the letters and governing various simple rules.

For more information about Sandhi in general you can click here.

Secondly, we have three type of Sandhi:

  • Swar sandhi
  • Vyanjan sandhi
  • Visarga sandhi

And as I told you earlier, we will learn about vyanjan sandhi as we have already covered swar sandhi in our last tutorial. (Click the link here for swar sandhi)

Vyanjan sandhi in sanskrit grammer

What is Vyanjan sandhi?

The combination of two consonants or consonant and vowel, which leads to change in the newly formed word is known as vyanjan sandhi (Consonants combination). The point to be noticed here is that the first letter has to be consonant and the second letter can be a consonant or a vowel. Secondly, it involves consonant, hence called consonant sandhi (vyanjan is the Sanskrit translation of consonant). In simple terms, changes between two words, where the first letter is a consonant.

Examples of vyanjan sandhi

वाक् (vak) + ईश (isha) = वागीश (vagisha),
दिग् (dig) + पालः (palah) = दिक्पालः (dikpalah)
सद् (sad) + कारः (karah) = सत्कारः (satkarah)
सम् (sam) + योगः (yogah) = संयोगः (sanyogah)

Type of Vyanjan sandhi?

According to Panini Ashtadhyayi (Sanskrit grammar Bible), vyanjan sandhi are of the following types:

  1. श्चुत्व सन्धि– Shchutva sandhi
  2. ष्टुत्व सन्धि- Shtutva sandhi
  3. जश्त्व सन्धि- Jashtva sandhi
  4. चत्र्व सन्धि- Chatrva sandhi
  5. अनुस्वार सन्धि- Anusvara sandhi
  6. लत्व सन्धि- Latva sandhi
  7. अनुनासिक सन्धि- Anunasika sandhi

As a refresher, I would suggest you, to review the consonant tutorial for better understanding

Hard and soft Consonants

क (ka)ख (Kha)ग (ga)घ (gha)ङ (ṅa)
च (ca)छ (cha)ज (ja)झ (jha)ञ (ña)
त (ta)थ (tha)द (da)ध (dha)न (na)
ट (ṭa)ठ (ṭha)द (ḍa)ढ (ḍha)ण (ṇa)
प (pa)फ (pha)ब (ba)भ (bha)म (ma)
य (ya)र (ra)ल (la)व (va)
श (śa)ष (ṣa)स (sa)ह (ha)

The colored alphabets are hard consonants. The rest are soft consonants.

श्र्चुत्व सन्धि

स्तोः श्र्चुना श्र्चुः

Whenever there is a combination of स (sa) or तवर्ग/ dental (त्, थ्, द्, ध् न्) with (either before or after) श् or with चवर्ग/ palatal (च्, छ्, ज्, झ्, ञ्), the स (sa) changes to श् and the तवर्ग/ dental changes to corresponding चवर्ग/ palatal.

Some examples of श्र्चुत्व सन्धि in vyanjan sandhi

स् + श्= श्श

रामस् (ramas) + शेते (shete) = रामश्शेते (ramashshete)
हरिस् (haris) + शेते (shete) = हरिश्शेते (harishshete)
रामस् (ramas) + चिनोति (chinoti) = रामश्चनोति (ramashchanoti)
रामस् (ramas) + च (cha) = रामश्च (ramashcha)
दुस् (dus) + चरित्रः (charitrah) = दुश्र्चरित्रः (dushrcharitrah)

त्/द् + च् = च्च

सत् (sat) + चरितम् (charitam) = सच्चरितम् (sachcharitam)
उत् (ut) + चारणम् (charanam) = उच्चारणम् (uchcharanam)

त्/द् + ज् = ज्ज

एतत् (etat) + जलम् (jalam) = एतज्जलम् (etajjalam)
सद् (sad) + जन (jana) = सज्जन (sajjana)

त्/द् + छ = च्छ

उत् (ut) + छिन्नः (chhinnah) = उच्छिन्नः (uchchhinnah)
उत् (ut) + छेदः (chhedah) = उच्छेदः (uchchhedah)

न् + चवर्ग = ञ् + चवर्ग

शत्रुन् (shatrun) + जयति (jayati) = शत्रुञ्जयति (shatrunjayati)

ष्टुत्व सन्धि

ष्टुना ष्टुः

Whenever there is a combination of स (sa) or तवर्ग/dental (त्, थ्, द् ध् न्) with (either before or after) ष् or with the टवर्ग/cerebral (ट्, ठ्, ड्, ढ्, ण), the स् (sa) changes to ष् and the तवर्ग/dental changes to corresponding टवर्ग/cerebral.

Examples of ष्टुत्व सन्धि

स् + ष्/टवर्ग = ष्

रामस् (ramas) + षष्ठः (shashthah) = रामष्षष्ठः (ramashshashthah)
रामस् (ramas) + टीकते (tikate) = रामष्टीकते (ramashtikate)

तवर्ग + स् = ष्+टवर्ग

प्रति (prati) + स्था (stha) = प्रतिष्ठा (pratishtha)
अधि (adhi) + स्थानम् (sthanam) = अधिष्ठानम् (adhishthanam)

तवर्ग + टवर्ग = टवर्ग

तत् (tat) + टीका (tika) = तट्टीका (tattika)

ष + तवर्ग = ष् + टवर्ग

इष् (ish) + तः (tah) = इष्टः (ishtah)
कृष् (krish) + न (na) = कृष्णः (krishnah)
विष् (vish) + नु (nu) = विष्णु (vishnu)

जश्त्व सन्धि

झलां जशोऽन्ते

झल् are all the consonants except nasal (ङ, ञ्, ण्, म्, न्) and semi-vowel (य, र, ल, व).

Whenever there is a combination of any झल् consonant (usually the first of their group); with any vowel or soft consonant, that consonant changes to the corresponding third consonant of the group.

क्/ह् –>ग् (third consonant of guttural)

वाक् (vak) + दानम् (danam) = वाग्ददानम् (vagdadanam)
दिक् (dik) + अम्बरः (ambarah) = दिगम्बरः (digambarah)

त्/स्–>द् (third consonant of dental)

जगत् (jagat) + ईश (isha) = जगदीश (jagadisha)
सत् (sat) + गुण (guna) = सद्गुण (sadguna)

च्/श् –>ज् (third consonant of palatal)

अच् (ach) + अन्तः (antah) = अजन्तः (ajantah)

ट्/ष्–>ड् (third consonant of cerebral)

षट् (shat) + दर्शनम् (darshanam) = षड्दर्शनम् (shaddarshanam)
षट् (shat) + आननः (ananah) = षडाननः (shadananah)

प्–>ब् (third consonant of labial)

सुप् (sup) + अन्तः (antah) = सुबन्तः (subantah)

चत्र्व सन्धि

चर् comprises first letter of each group (क, च, ट, त, प,) and sibilants (स, श, ष).
झल् are all the consonants except nasal (ङ, ञ्, ण्, म्, न्) and semi-vowel (य, र, ल, व).

Whenever there is a combination of a झल् consonant, with a hard consonant, it changes into its corresponding चर् consonant.

दिग् (dig) + पालः (palah) = दिक्पालः (dikpalah)
(ग्–>क्)
सद् (sad) + कारः (karah) = सत्कारः (satkarah)
(द्–>त्)
तज् (taj) + छिव (chhiva) = तच्छिव (tachchhiva)
(ज्–>च्)
विपद् (vipad) + कालः (kalah) = विपत्कालः (vipatkalah)
(द–>त्)

अनुस्वार सन्धि

Whenever म् is followed by a consonant, it replaced by an anuswar (अनुस्वार), but when appears at the end of a sentence, it remains as it is.

सम् (sam) + योगः (yogah) = संयोगः (sanyogah)
अहम् (aham) + कारः (karah) = अहंकारः (ahankarah)

लत्व सन्धि

The combination of तवर्ग/dental with ल्, it replaced by ल्, but न् is replaced by a nasal ल्.

उत् (ut) + लेखः (lekhah) = उल्लेखः (ullekhah)
महान् (mahan) + लाभः (labhah) = महाँल्लाभः (mahanllabhah)

अनुनासिक सन्धि

A)“यरोऽनुनासिकेऽनुनासिको वा”

यर् includes all the consonants except ह्।

Whenever there is a combination of यर् consonant with a nasal (ङ, ञ्, ण्, म्, न्), is replaced by its own corresponding nasal, optionally.

दिक् (dik) + मुखम् (mukham) = दिङ्मुकम्/दिग्मुखम् (dinmukam/digmukham)
यस्मात् (yasmat) + नो (no) = यस्मान्नो (yasmanno)

दिग्मुखम् (digmukham) by the rule of जश्त्व सन्धि above.

b)प्रत्यये भाषायां नित्यम्

The above rule is compulsory, if the प्रत्यय is there in the second word.

चिद् (chid) + मयम् (mayam) = चिन्मयम् (chinmayam) (द्–>न्)
वाक् (vak)  मयः (mayah)  वाङ्मयः (vanmayah) (क्–>ङ्)

c) डमो ह्सस्वादचि ङमुण् नित्यम्

If ङ्, ण्, न् comes after short vowel, and combines with any vowel, it become double.

प्रत्यङ् (pratyan) + आत्मा (atma) = प्रत्यङ्ङात्मा (pratyannatma)
धावन् (dhavan) + अश्वः (ashvah) = धावन्नश्वः (dhavannashvah)

d) झयो होऽन्यतरस्याम्

झर् includes all the consonants except nasals

Whenever a झर् consonant combines with ह्, झर् changes to third consonant and ह् changes to forth consonant of the same group.

अप् (ap) + हरणम् (haranam) = अब्भरणम् (abbharanam)
उत् (ut) + हारः (harah) = उद्धारः (uddharah)

There are around 40 rules in vyanjan sandhi, I have covered all the important rules among them.

With this, we have finished today’s topic about vyanjan sandhi in Sanskrit. In the next tutorial, we will start with visarga sandhi. If you like this tutorial, please share it with your friends on Facebook, Pinterest.

Thank you

Om Tat Sat.

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